Economic importance of plant and its uses in daily life
Economic importance of plant like cereals, Sugars, Paper, Legumes and Pulses, Vegetables Oil and Fats, woods, spices and Condiments, Fruits and Medicinal Plants
★The cereals are the most important source of food for human beings.
★Cereals are rich in carbohydrates (7-10%) but also contain consid.erable amount of proteins, fats, vitamins and mlnerals. .
★Paddy, wheat, maize, barley, oat and rye are cereals or true cereals. All of these belong to familyPoaceae.
★Fruit of cereals is caryopsis.
There are some true cereals namely
(i) Rice (Oryza sativa) its varieties are basmati, Krishna kaveri, sona, IR-36, etc.
(ii) Wheat (Th’ticum aestivum) its varieties are lerma roja, sonora-64, sonalika, etc.
(iii) Maize (Zea mays) its varieties are amber, deccan etc. .
(iv) Oat (AVena sativa) its varieties are bonda, cooker, etc.
Triticale is the first man-made cereal.
★Presently, world gets major supply of sugar. from the culms of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum, family-Poaceae).
★Highest crop of sugarcane is grown in India.
★A small portion of sugar is obtained trom sugarneet root (Beta vulggris, family-Chenopodiaceae).
★Sugar obtained from sugarcane and sugarbeet is sucrose.
★Paper is a cellulosic product.
★About 97% of world’s paper is made from pulp of wood. Of it, 85% is derived from conifers especially spruces (Picea sp.), Fir (Abies sp.) and pines (Pinuss p.).
★ In India, Chief sources of faiWhmaterial for paper is bambusa [Bambusa arundinacea and Dendrocalamus strictus).
Legumes and Pulses
These are all members of family-Leguminosae (Fabaceae).
Some of the important pulses are
(i) Gram or chick pea (Cicer arietinum)
(ii) Pigeon pea or Arhar (Cajanus cajan)
(iii) Soyabean (Glycine max)
(iv) Pea (Pisum sativum)
(V) Groundnut (Arachis hypogea)
★Pulses contain 17-30% protein on a dry weight basis. soyabean (42% protein) occupies top position among the protein rich legumes.
★Folic acid can be obtained from sporuted pulses.
★Pulses also contain carbohydrates upto 60% in the ‘ form of starch. Fat content is very low (1-296) except soyabean where it is high (up to 20%).
★Riboflavin, niacin and thiamine vitamins are also present in pulses and legumes.
★India is a major producer of vegetables as well as fruits due to different varieties and variation in its agroclimatic conditions. .
★The word vegetable is popularly used for those plants or plant parts which are eaten raw or salted or boiled with a main course of a meal.
★Vegetables are rich in Vitamins and mineral salts.
Vegetables are divided into three types:
(i) Underground vegetables
(ii) Herbage vegetables
(iii). F ruit vegetables.’
★Sweet potato (shakarkand), radish, turnip And carrot are called root vegetables. ‘
★Potato, arvi, onion, garlic are underground stein Vegetables.
★Cabbage, caulifloWer, spinach, bathua, methi are herbage vegetables.
★Tomato, brinjal, ‘b’ottle. gourd, bitter géurd (karela) ‘ i and jack fruit are fruit vegetables.
★Carotene (a precursor of vitamin-A) is abundant in cabbage, carrot, green peppers, raw, tomatoes, spinach, pumpkin, and sweet-potato.
★Among vegetables hvitamin-C is found in. tomatoes ‘ . peppers, potatoes,.cabbage, bitter gourd , onion, etc.
★Green vegetables like spinach are rich in vitamin-E. 0 Brinjal 13 good source of lron.’
★Vegetables of Wild cabbage are Ikale, broccoli, kohlrabi.
★Fruit is ripend ovary enclosing seeds.
★All fruits developing from an inferior ovary are false fruit.
★Fruits are juicy (water content upto 96%). Fruits are inferior in food value, but banana and dates are rich sources of energy, 1′.e., carbohydrate.
★Usually, the fruits are good sources of mineral and vitamins.
★Banana, mango, citrus are indigenous to India.
★Majority of cultivated fruits belong to two famine Rosaceae followed by Rutaceae” s
★Amla is the richest source of vitamin-C.
Oil and Fats
Oil obtained fiom plants, these are of two types
(i) Essential oils are -aromatic and volatile. These contain terpenes, sulphuretted oil, oxygenated oils.
These are useful in attracting insects and repel enemies. Fatty oils present in plants are of three types
(a) Non-dryintg oil
(b) Drying oil
(c) Semi drying oil
(ii) Fats are solid/semisolid at room temperature. These are edible and are used in manufacturing soap and candles
★Wood is mainly secondary xylem formed by vascular cambium during secondary growth.
★Cricket bats are manufactured from the .wood of 3on alba (willow). ‘
★Matchsticks and matchboxes are made of Salmalia malaban’ca, BosweIIia serrate.
★Hocky sticks, tennis and badminton rackets, cricket stumps are made of Moms aIba (shatoot) while pencils from the wood of Adina cordzfolia, Juniperus sp., etc.
★The wood produced by gymnosperm plants is commercially known as soft wood. .
★Billiards cue shaft is made of Diospyros wood.
★Lightest wood is of balsa wood (Ochroma), found in tropical america.
spices and Condiments
They are generally hard parts of plants used in pulverized state for flavour. may can be obtained from dijferent parts of plants
(i) e.g., Turmeric, ginger from underground rhizomes.
(ii) e.g., Clove (laung), saffron (kesar) from flower.
(iii) e.g., Black pepper, coriander, fennel (saunt) from
(iv) e.g., Mint (pudina), peppermint from leaves.
(v) e.g., Cardamom (elaichi) and fenugreek (methi) from seeds.
★The most important fibre is cotton, whcih is obtained from the seed hairs of 4 species of Gossypium, i.e., Gossypium arboreum, Gossypium herbaceum, Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium barbadense. Cotton is the world’s, preeminent natural fibre, of which in excess of 20 million tonnes are produced annually. The largest producers are China, the United States of America. India and Pakistan.
★Jute, obtained from the pholem fibres of Corchorus capsulan’s and Corchorus oIitorius, is also an important fibre crop, with a production in excess of 2 million tonnes annually it is the second largest Vegetable fibre. India and Bangladesh are by far the largest producers.
★Kenaf, obtained from the pholem fibres of Hibiscus cannabinus. has an annual production of about 1 million tonnes, Thailand, Burma, China and Bangladesh are the major producera
★Several other species are eXploited for their pholem fibres, including devil’s cotton Abroma angusta, China jute Abutilon theopbmstii. roselle Hibiscus sabdarijj‘a, bast TiIia sp.
★bast fibre, soft, woody fibre obtained form stems of dicotyledonous plants (flowering plants with net-veined leaves) and used for textiles and cordage. Such fibres, usually characterized by fineness and flexibility are also known as soft fibres, distinguishing them from the coarser, less flexible fibres of the leaf, or hard, fibre group. Commercially useful bast fibres include flax, hemp, jute, kenaf, ramie, roselle, sunn and urena.
★Highest quantity of cellulose is found in cotton.
Medicinal Plants .
★Hippocrates is called the Father of Medicine.
★Depending upon the plant organ from Which the drug is obtained, the drug plants are divided into following categories .
Drugs Obtained from Roots
★Belladona from Atropa belladona.
★Atropine alkaloid is obtained and used for dilating pupil of eye.
★Serpentine from Rauwolji’a serpentina.
★About 30 alkaloids are obtained and out of which reserpine alkaloid is most important one having sedative influence.
★Ashwagandha from Withania sommifera.
★It is used in treatment of rheumatic pain, inflammation of joints, ulcers and to promote healing processes.
Drugs Obtained from Leaves
★Tulsi from Ocimum sanctum.
★Its leaf juice is given in cold, cough and chronic fever.
Drugs Obtained from Fruits and Flower.
★Opium from Papaver somm’ferum. It have great medicinal value.
★Saffron (kasar) from Crocus sativus. The dried stigmas and tops of the style are medicinally used.
These are Economic importance of plant